Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Comp Neurol. 2014 Aug 15;522(12):2877-86. doi: 10.1002/cne.23620. Epub 2014 May 21.

Induced neuronal reprogramming.

Author information

Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine and Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, 94305; Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, 94305.


Cellular differentiation processes during normal embryonic development are guided by extracellular soluble factors such as morphogen gradients and cell contact signals, eventually resulting in induction of specific combinations of lineage-determining transcription factors. The young field of epigenetic reprogramming takes advantage of this knowledge and uses cell fate determination factors to convert one lineage into another such as the conversion of fibroblasts into pluripotent stem cells or neurons. These induced cell fate conversions open up new avenues for studying disease processes, generating cell material for therapeutic intervention such as drug screening and potentially also for cell-based therapies. However, there are still limitations that have to be overcome to fulfill these promises, centering on reprogramming efficiencies, cell identity, and maturation. In this review, we discuss the discovery of induced neuronal reprogramming, ways to improve the conversion process, and finally how to define properly the identity of those converted neuronal cells.


cell fate; epigenetic reprogramming; neuronal reprogramming; pluripotency

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Wiley Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center