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Mutat Res. 2014 Oct;768:60-8. doi: 10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2014.04.007. Epub 2014 Apr 24.

Diabetes as a risk factor to cancer: functional role of fermented papaya preparation as phytonutraceutical adjunct in the treatment of diabetes and cancer.

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Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, American University of Health Sciences, Signal Hill, CA, USA. Electronic address:
ANDI Center for Biomedical and Biomaterials Research, University of Mauritius, MSIRI Building, Réduit, Mauritius.
Groupe d'Etude sur l'Inflammation Chronique et l'Obésité (GEICO), Université de La Réunion, Plateforme CYROI, Saint Denis, France.
ANDI Center for Biomedical and Biomaterials Research, University of Mauritius, MSIRI Building, Réduit, Mauritius. Electronic address:


Oncologists and diabetologists quote scientific data from epidemiological and in vitro studies to show that high levels of insulin and glucose, in combination with oxidative stress and chronic inflammation, can heighten the risk of developing cancer amongst patients with diabetes. Although the cancers that have been consistently associated with type 2 diabetes include pancreatic, colorectal, breast and liver cancer, the preponderance of the disease risk factors such as obesity, inflammation, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinaemia (as a result of insulin resistance and oxidative β-cell damage) and the indirect influence of anti-diabetic medications are increasingly being defined. Fermented papaya preparation (FPP) has defined antioxidant and immune-modulating potentials. The ability of FPP influence signaling cascades associated with cell growth and survival presents a rational for chemopreventive adjunct that can be used in combination with traditional redox based therapies that target oxidative stress in the cancer micro environment. It is further suggested that the demonstrated efficacy FPP to control blood glucose, excessive inflammation and modulate free radical-induced oxidative damage which are triggers of liver, bladder, breast and prostate cancers in type 2 diabetics, may favorably mitigate the side effects of ensuing diabetes and cancer therapy. What remains paramount is early cancer detection and early determination of propensity risks for diabetes. The education of patients, proper dietary management and compliance with therapeutic regime directed at cancer and diabetes encapsulate challenges of global magnitude.


Diabetes and cancer treatment; Fermented papaya preparation; Hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia; Modulation cancer therapy side effects; Oxidative stress and antioxidants; Oxidative stress and inflammation

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