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Cell. 2014 Apr 24;157(3):624-35. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2014.02.033.

Quantifying absolute protein synthesis rates reveals principles underlying allocation of cellular resources.

Author information

1
Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA; California Institute of Quantitative Biosciences, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA; Center for RNA Systems Biology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. Electronic address: gene-wei.li@ucsf.edu.
2
California Institute of Quantitative Biosciences, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA.
3
California Institute of Quantitative Biosciences, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA; Department of Cell and Tissue Biology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA.
4
Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA; California Institute of Quantitative Biosciences, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA; Center for RNA Systems Biology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. Electronic address: weissman@cmp.ucsf.edu.

Abstract

Quantitative views of cellular functions require precise measures of rates of biomolecule production, especially proteins-the direct effectors of biological processes. Here, we present a genome-wide approach, based on ribosome profiling, for measuring absolute protein synthesis rates. The resultant E. coli data set transforms our understanding of the extent to which protein synthesis is precisely controlled to optimize function and efficiency. Members of multiprotein complexes are made in precise proportion to their stoichiometry, whereas components of functional modules are produced differentially according to their hierarchical role. Estimates of absolute protein abundance also reveal principles for optimizing design. These include how the level of different types of transcription factors is optimized for rapid response and how a metabolic pathway (methionine biosynthesis) balances production cost with activity requirements. Our studies reveal how general principles, important both for understanding natural systems and for synthesizing new ones, emerge from quantitative analyses of protein synthesis.

PMID:
24766808
PMCID:
PMC4006352
DOI:
10.1016/j.cell.2014.02.033
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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