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Clin Microbiol Infect. 2014 Oct;20(10):981-90. doi: 10.1111/1469-0691.12651. Epub 2014 Jun 14.

Antimicrobial susceptibility testing in biofilm-growing bacteria.

Author information

1
Servicio de Microbiología, Hospital Universitario Son Espases, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Palma (IdISPa), Palma de Mallorca, Spain.

Abstract

Biofilms are organized bacterial communities embedded in an extracellular polymeric matrix attached to living or abiotic surfaces. The development of biofilms is currently recognized as one of the most relevant drivers of persistent infections. Among them, chronic respiratory infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients is probably the most intensively studied. The lack of correlation between conventional susceptibility test results and therapeutic success in chronic infections is probably a consequence of the use of planktonically growing instead of biofilm-growing bacteria. Therefore, several in vitro models to evaluate antimicrobial activity on biofilms have been implemented over the last decade. Microtitre plate-based assays, the Calgary device, substratum suspending reactors and the flow cell system are some of the most used in vitro biofilm models for susceptibility studies. Likewise, new pharmacodynamic parameters, including minimal biofilm inhibitory concentration, minimal biofilm-eradication concentration, biofilm bactericidal concentration, and biofilm-prevention concentration, have been defined in recent years to quantify antibiotic activity in biofilms. Using these parameters, several studies have shown very significant quantitative and qualitative differences for the effects of most antibiotics when acting on planktonic or biofilm bacteria. Nevertheless, standardization of the procedures, parameters and breakpoints, by official agencies, is needed before they are implemented in clinical microbiology laboratories for routine susceptibility testing. Research efforts should also be directed to obtaining a deeper understanding of biofilm resistance mechanisms, the evaluation of optimal pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models for biofilm growth, and correlation with clinical outcome.

KEYWORDS:

Antibiotic; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; antimicrobial resistance; biofilm; pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic parameters; susceptibility testing

PMID:
24766583
DOI:
10.1111/1469-0691.12651
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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