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J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2014 Jul;14(1):1-11. doi: 10.3171/2014.3.PEDS13381. Epub 2014 Apr 25.

Stereotactic radiosurgery at a low marginal dose for the treatment of pediatric arteriovenous malformations: obliteration, complications, and functional outcomes.

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1
Departments of Neurological Surgery.

Abstract

OBJECT.: Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is an established treatment modality for brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in children, but the optimal treatment parameters and associated treatment-related complications are not fully understood. The authors present their single-institution experience of using SRS, at a relatively low marginal dose, to treat AVMs in children for nearly 20 years; they report angiographic outcomes, posttreatment hemorrhage rates, adverse treatment-related events, and functional outcomes.

METHODS:

The authors conducted a retrospective review of 2 cohorts of children (18 years of age or younger) with AVMs treated from 1991 to 1998 and from 2000 to 2010.

RESULTS:

A total of 80 patients with follow-up data after SRS were identified. Mean age at SRS was 12.7 years, and 56% of patients had hemorrhage at the time of presentation. Median target volume was 3.1 cm(3) (range 0.09-62.3 cm(3)), and median prescription marginal dose used was 17.5 Gy (range 12-20 Gy). Angiograms acquired 3 years after treatment were available for 47% of patients; AVM obliteration was achieved in 52% of patients who received a dose of 18-20 Gy and in 16% who received less than 18 Gy. At 5 years after SRS, the cumulative incidence of hemorrhage was 25% (95% CI 16%-37%). No permanent neurological deficits occurred in patients who did not experience posttreatment hemorrhage. Overall, good functional outcomes (modified Rankin Scale Scores 0-2) were observed for 78% of patients; for 66% of patients, functional status improved or remained the same as before treatment.

CONCLUSIONS:

A low marginal dose minimizes SRS-related neurological deficits but leads to low rates of obliteration and high rates of hemorrhage. To maximize AVM obliteration and minimize posttreatment hemorrhage, the authors recommend a prescription marginal dose of 18 Gy or more. In addition, SRS-related symptoms such as headache and seizures should be considered when discussing risks and benefits of SRS for treating AVMs in children.

KEYWORDS:

AVM = arteriovenous malformation; SRS = stereotactic radiosurgery; UCSF = University of California, San Francisco; arteriovenous malformation; mRS = modified Rankin Scale; pediatric; stereotactic radiosurgery; vascular disorders

PMID:
24766309
DOI:
10.3171/2014.3.PEDS13381
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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