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J Virol. 1989 Oct;63(10):4417-21.

The E6 and E7 genes of the human papillomavirus type 16 together are necessary and sufficient for transformation of primary human keratinocytes.

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  • 1Laboratory of Tumor Virus Biology, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892.


The early human papillomavirus type 16 genes that directly participate in the in vitro transformation of primary human keratinocytes have been defined. In the context of the full viral genome, mutations in either the E6 or E7 open reading frame completely abrogated transformation of these cells. Mutations in the E1, E2, and E2-E4 open reading frames, on the other hand, had no effect. Thus, both the full-length E6 and E7 genes were required for the induction of keratinocyte immortalization and resistance to terminal differentiation. The E6 and E7 genes expressed together from the human beta-actin promoter were sufficient for this transformation; mutation of either gene in the context of this recombinant plasmid eliminated the ability to induce stable differentiation-resistant transformants.

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