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Oncol Lett. 2014 May;7(5):1352-1362. Epub 2014 Mar 4.

Molecular mechanisms of chemoresistance in osteosarcoma (Review).

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1
Department of Orthopedics, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, P.R. China.

Abstract

Due to the emergence of adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the survival rate has been greatly improved in osteosarcoma (OS) patients with localized disease. However, this survival rate has remained unchanged over the past 30 years, and the long-term survival rate for OS patients with metastatic or recurrent disease remains poor. To a certain extent, the reason behind this may be ascribed to the chemoresistance to anti-OS therapy. Chemoresistance in OS appears to be mediated by numerous mechanisms, which include decreased intracellular drug accumulation, drug inactivation, enhanced DNA repair, perturbations in signal transduction pathways, apoptosis- and autophagy-related chemoresistance, microRNA (miRNA) dysregulation and cancer stem cell (CSC)-mediated drug resistance. In addition, methods employed to circumvent these resistance mechanism have been shown to be effective in the treatment of OS. However, almost all the current studies on the mechanisms of chemoresistance in OS are in their infancy. Further studies are required to focus on the following aspects: i) Improving the delivery of efficacy through novel delivery patterns; ii) improving the understanding of the signal transduction pathways that regulate the proliferation and growth of OS cells; iii) elucidating the signaling pathways of autophagy and its association with apoptosis in OS cells; iv) utilizing high-throughput miRNA expression analysis to identify miRNAs associated with chemoresistance in OS; and v) identifying the role that CSCs play in tumor metastasis and in-depth study of the mechanism of chemoresistance in the CSCs of OS.

KEYWORDS:

chemoresistance; osteosarcoma

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