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J Biomech Eng. 2014 Mar;136(3):035001. doi: 10.1115/1.4026103.

A new sensor for measurement of dynamic contact stress in the hip.


Various techniques exist for quantifying articular contact stress distributions, an important class of measurements in the field of orthopaedic biomechanics. In situations where the need for dynamic recording has been paramount, the approach of preference has involved thin-sheet multiplexed grid-array transducers. To date, these sensors have been used to study contact stresses in the knee, shoulder, ankle, wrist, and spinal facet joints. Until now, however, no such sensor had been available for the human hip joint due to difficulties posed by the deep, bi-curvilinear geometry of the acetabulum. We report here the design and development of a novel sensor capable of measuring dynamic contact stress in human cadaveric hip joints (maximum contact stress of 20 MPa and maximum sampling rate 100 readings/s). Particular emphasis is placed on issues concerning calibration, and on the effect of joint curvature on the sensor's performance. The active pressure-sensing regions of the sensors have the shape of a segment of an annulus with a 150-deg circumferential span, and employ a polar/circumferential "ring-and-spoke" sensel grid layout. There are two sensor sizes, having outside radii of 44 and 48 mm, respectively. The new design was evaluated in human cadaver hip joints using two methods. The stress magnitudes and spatial distribution measured by the sensor were compared to contact stresses measured by pressure sensitive film during static loading conditions that simulated heel strike during walking and stair climbing. Additionally, the forces obtained by spatial integration of the sensor contact stresses were compared to the forces measured by load cells during the static simulations and for loading applied by a dynamic hip simulator. Stress magnitudes and spatial distribution patterns obtained from the sensor versus from pressure sensitive film exhibited good agreement. The joint forces obtained during both static and dynamic loading were within ±10% and ±26%, respectively, of the forces measured by the load cells. These results provide confidence in the measurements obtained by the sensor. The new sensor's real-time output and dynamic measurement capabilities hold significant advantages over static measurements from pressure sensitive film.

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