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Res Dev Disabil. 2014 Jul;35(7):1534-43. doi: 10.1016/j.ridd.2014.03.047. Epub 2014 Apr 21.

Psychometric validation of the Family Outcome Survey-Revised in Singapore.

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National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. Electronic address:
National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
RTI International, USA.


This study sought to examine the construct validity of the Family Outcomes Survey-Revised (FOS-R) in Singapore, describe the extent to which family outcomes of early childhood intervention (ECI) are attained, and obtain caregivers' perception on the extent to which ECI has served their needs. The FOS-R was translated into Chinese (simplified) and Malay for use in Singapore. Bilingual (i.e., English-Chinese and English-Malay) versions of the instrument were distributed to caregivers of young children with disabilities receiving ECI in four centers in Singapore. A total of 291 surveys were available for analyses (response rate of 43.1%). Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that there was a fit between the current data set and the FOS-R structure proposed by the developers. Overall, the participants reported moderately high attainment of family outcomes. They also reported that the ECI programs were mostly helpful. Other aspects of the cross-cultural application of instruments were considered and implications for local service provision as well as directions for future research were discussed.


Early childhood intervention; Family Outcomes Survey-Revised; Singapore

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