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Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2014 Jul;10(7):422-8. doi: 10.1038/nrrheum.2014.54. Epub 2014 Apr 29.

The role of CD22 and Siglec-G in B-cell tolerance and autoimmune disease.

Author information

1
Chair of Genetics, Department of Biology, University of Erlangen, Staudtstrasse 5, 91058 Erlangen, Germany.

Abstract

A high proportion of peripheral human B cells produce polyreactive or autoreactive antibodies, which indicates that they have escaped the elimination of self-reactive B cells in the bone marrow. CD22 and Siglec-G are two inhibitory receptors of the sialic-acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin (Siglec) family that inhibit the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) signal. The ability of these two receptors to bind sialic acids is crucial for regulating inhibition and inducing tolerance to self-antigens. Sialylated glycans are usually absent on microbes (although several pathogenic microorganisms have evolved strategies to mimic self by decorating their surfaces with sialic acids) but abundant in higher vertebrates and might, therefore, provide an important tolerogenic signal. Combined Siglec-G deficiency and CD22 deficiency leads to spontaneous autoimmunity in mice, and mutations in an enzyme that modifies Siglec ligands are directly linked to several autoimmune diseases in humans. New data show that high-affinity ligands for CD22 and Siglec-G can be used to induce antigen-specific B-cell tolerance, which might be one strategy for the treatment of autoimmune diseases in the future.

PMID:
24763061
DOI:
10.1038/nrrheum.2014.54
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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