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Science. 2014 May 16;344(6185):747-50. doi: 10.1126/science.1253448. Epub 2014 Apr 24.

Genomic diversity and admixture differs for Stone-Age Scandinavian foragers and farmers.

Author information

1
Department of Evolutionary Biology, Uppsala University, Uppsala 752 36, Sweden.
2
Department of Archaeology and Classical studies, Stockholm University, Stockholm 106 91, Sweden.
3
Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 1350, Denmark.
4
Department of Archaeology, Environment and Community Planning, La Trobe University, Melbourne VIC 3086, Australia.
5
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm 171 77, Sweden.
6
Evolutionary Biology Group, Estonian Biocentre and University of Tartu, Tartu 51010, Estonia.
7
Department of Historical Studies, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, 405 30, Sweden.
8
Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Lund University, Lund, 221 00, Sweden.
9
Department of Archaeology and Classical studies, Stockholm University, Stockholm 106 91, Sweden. tsarapkin@googlemail.com mattias.jakobsson@ebc.uu.se.
10
Department of Evolutionary Biology, Uppsala University, Uppsala 752 36, Sweden. Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala 752 36, Sweden. tsarapkin@googlemail.com mattias.jakobsson@ebc.uu.se.

Abstract

Prehistoric population structure associated with the transition to an agricultural lifestyle in Europe remains a contentious idea. Population-genomic data from 11 Scandinavian Stone Age human remains suggest that hunter-gatherers had lower genetic diversity than that of farmers. Despite their close geographical proximity, the genetic differentiation between the two Stone Age groups was greater than that observed among extant European populations. Additionally, the Scandinavian Neolithic farmers exhibited a greater degree of hunter-gatherer-related admixture than that of the Tyrolean Iceman, who also originated from a farming context. In contrast, Scandinavian hunter-gatherers displayed no significant evidence of introgression from farmers. Our findings suggest that Stone Age foraging groups were historically in low numbers, likely owing to oscillating living conditions or restricted carrying capacity, and that they were partially incorporated into expanding farming groups.

PMID:
24762536
DOI:
10.1126/science.1253448
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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