Send to

Choose Destination
Am J Epidemiol. 2014 Jun 15;179(12):1409-17. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwu074. Epub 2014 Apr 22.

Exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy as a risk factor for tobacco use in adult offspring.


Nicotine from maternal smoking during pregnancy can cross the placental barrier, possibly resulting in fetal brain sensitization, as indicated by studies in which prenatal exposure to maternal smoking was associated with an increased risk of tobacco use among adolescent offspring. We investigated whether this association persists beyond adolescence by studying cigarette smoking and the use of snus (Swedish oral moist snuff) among 983 young adults from a prospective cohort study conducted in Stockholm, Sweden, between 2006 and 2010. Self-reported questionnaire data were linked with data from national population-based registers from 1983 onward. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was consistently associated with snus use in offspring (e.g., for lifetime daily snus use, adjusted odds ratio = 2.04, 95% confidence interval: 1.32, 3.16; for use of >3 cans of snus per week vs. less, odds ratio = 3.85, 95% confidence interval: 1.57, 10.15). No association was apparent with offspring's smoking, age at onset of tobacco use, or changes in use between 2006 and 2010. These findings indicate that prenatal exposure to maternal smoking is associated with regular and heavy nicotine intake from smokeless tobacco rather than from smoking. This should be further explored in epidemiologic studies that simultaneously address the roles of genetics and social environments.


cigarette smoking; prenatal exposure delayed effects; smoking; tobacco; tobacco, smokeless

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Silverchair Information Systems
Loading ...
Support Center