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BMJ Open. 2014 Apr 23;4(4):e004794. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2014-004794.

Factors associated with anxiety and depression among type 2 diabetes outpatients in Malaysia: a descriptive cross-sectional single-centre study.

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1
International Medical School, Management and Science University (MSU), Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To determine the prevalence and factors associated with anxiety and depression among type 2 diabetes outpatients in Malaysia.

DESIGN:

Descriptive, cross-sectional single-centre study with universal sampling of all patients with type 2 diabetes.

SETTING:

Endocrinology clinic of medical outpatient department in a Malaysian public hospital.

PARTICIPANTS:

All 169 patients with type 2 diabetes (men, n=99; women, n=70) aged between 18 and 90 years who acquired follow-up treatment from the endocrinology clinic in the month of September 2013.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

The validated Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), sociodemographic characteristics and clinical health information from patient records.

RESULTS:

Of the total 169 patients surveyed, anxiety and depression were found in 53 (31.4%) and 68 (40.3%), respectively. In multivariate analysis, age, ethnicity and ischaemic heart disease were significantly associated with anxiety, while age, ethnicity and monthly household income were significantly associated with depression.

CONCLUSIONS:

Sociodemographics and clinical health factors were important correlates of anxiety and depression among patients with diabetes. Integrated psychological and medical care to boost self-determination and confidence in the management of diabetes would catalyse optimal health outcomes among patients with diabetes.

PMID:
24760351
PMCID:
PMC4010817
DOI:
10.1136/bmjopen-2014-004794
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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