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Viruses. 2014 Apr 22;6(4):1837-60. doi: 10.3390/v6041837.

HIV-1 latency in monocytes/macrophages.

Author information

1
UPRES EA4266, SFR FED 4234, Pathogens and Inflammation Laboratory, Department of Virology, CHRU Besançon, University of Franche-Comte, F-25030 Besançon, France. amit.aiims2005@gmail.com.
2
UPRES EA4266, SFR FED 4234, Pathogens and Inflammation Laboratory, Department of Virology, CHRU Besançon, University of Franche-Comte, F-25030 Besançon, France. wazim_cemb@hotmail.com.
3
UPRES EA4266, SFR FED 4234, Pathogens and Inflammation Laboratory, Department of Virology, CHRU Besançon, University of Franche-Comte, F-25030 Besançon, France. georges.herbein@univ-fcomte.fr.

Abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) targets CD4+ T cells and cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. HIV pathogenesis is characterized by the depletion of T lymphocytes and by the presence of a population of cells in which latency has been established called the HIV-1 reservoir. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has significantly improved the life of HIV-1 infected patients. However, complete eradication of HIV-1 from infected individuals is not possible without targeting latent sources of infection. HIV-1 establishes latent infection in resting CD4+ T cells and findings indicate that latency can also be established in the cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. Monocyte/macrophage lineage includes among others, monocytes, macrophages and brain resident macrophages. These cells are relatively more resistant to apoptosis induced by HIV-1, thus are important stable hideouts of the virus. Much effort has been made in the direction of eliminating HIV-1 resting CD4+ T-cell reservoirs. However, it is impossible to achieve a cure for HIV-1 without considering these neglected latent reservoirs, the cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. In this review we will describe our current understanding of the mechanism of latency in monocyte/macrophage lineage and how such cells can be specifically eliminated from the infected host.

PMID:
24759213
PMCID:
PMC4014723
DOI:
10.3390/v6041837
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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