Send to

Choose Destination
Cell Immunol. 2014 May-Jun;289(1-2):119-27. doi: 10.1016/j.cellimm.2014.03.016. Epub 2014 Apr 8.

Dendritic-cell exosomes cross-present Toll-like receptor-ligands and activate bystander dendritic cells.

Author information

University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
Rush University Medical Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Chicago, IL, USA.
University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; Department of Pathology, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; Department of Immunology, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Electronic address:


Dendritic cells (DCs) are the major sentinel, antigen-presenting and regulatory components of the immune system. One of the central DC functions is to rapidly sense and alert host immune system of a pathogen invasion. In the present study, we investigated the role of DC exosomes (DCex) in this sentinel function. We demonstrated that DCex could bind bacterial Toll-like-receptor ligands (TLR-Ls), and acquire their ability to strongly activate bystander DCs. Consequently, bystander DCs enhance the expression of transmembrane tumor necrosis factor, secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and cross-talk with natural killer cells leading to the elevated secretion of IFNγ. These findings newly show that DCex can bind and cross-present TLR-Ls to innate-immunity effector cells, and indicate a potent mechanism to systemically alert the host immune system of pathogen invasion. They also suggest a potential novel strategy to generate effective vaccines by binding TLR-L-immune adjuvants to DCex.


Dendritic cells; Exosomes; NK cells; TLR ligands; Th1 response; Transmembrane TNF

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center