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AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2014 May;202(5):1072-7. doi: 10.2214/AJR.13.11001.

Evaluation of patient effective dose of neurovascular imaging protocols for C-arm cone-beam CT.

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1 Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, NC.



The purpose of this study was threefold: to estimate the organ doses and effective doses (EDs) for seven neurovascular imaging protocols, to study the effect of beam collimation on ED, and to derive protocol-specific dose-area product (DAP)-to-ED conversion factors.


A cone-beam CT system was used to measure the organ doses for seven neurovascular imaging protocols. Two datasets were obtained: seven protocols without beam collimation (FOV, entire head) and four with beam collimation (FOV, from the base to the top of the skull). Measurements were performed on an adult male anthropomorphic phantom with 20 metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) detectors placed in selected organs. The DAP values were recorded from the console. The EDs of five protocols were also estimated using Monte Carlo simulations software. The ED values were computed by multiplying measured organ doses to corresponding International Commission on Radiological Protection tissue-weighting factors.


Without collimation, the EDs ranged from 0.16 to 1.6 mSv, and the DAP-to-ED conversion factors ranged from 0.035 to 0.076 mSv/Gy·cm(2). For the four protocols investigated with beam collimation, the ED was reduced by a factor of approximately 2, and the DAP-to-ED conversion factors were reduced by approximately 30%. For the five protocols also estimated with the Monte Carlo method, the estimated EDs were in agreement (< 20% deviation) with those determined by the MOSFET method.


We have estimated ED for standard adult neuroimaging protocols in a 3D rotational angiography system. Our results provide a simple means of ED estimation using DAP console readings.

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