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J Am Chem Soc. 2014 May 7;136(18):6513-33. doi: 10.1021/ja408069v. Epub 2014 Apr 23.

Macromolecular engineering by atom transfer radical polymerization.

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1
Department of Chemistry, Carnegie Mellon University , 4400 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, United States.

Abstract

This Perspective presents recent advances in macromolecular engineering enabled by ATRP. They include the fundamental mechanistic and synthetic features of ATRP with emphasis on various catalytic/initiation systems that use parts-per-million concentrations of Cu catalysts and can be run in environmentally friendly media, e.g., water. The roles of the major components of ATRP--monomers, initiators, catalysts, and various additives--are explained, and their reactivity and structure are correlated. The effects of media and external stimuli on polymerization rates and control are presented. Some examples of precisely controlled elements of macromolecular architecture, such as chain uniformity, composition, topology, and functionality, are discussed. Syntheses of polymers with complex architecture, various hybrids, and bioconjugates are illustrated. Examples of current and forthcoming applications of ATRP are covered. Future challenges and perspectives for macromolecular engineering by ATRP are discussed.

PMID:
24758377
DOI:
10.1021/ja408069v
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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