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Prev Sci. 2015 Feb;16(2):242-53. doi: 10.1007/s11121-014-0490-2.

The effectiveness of the Stop Now and Plan (SNAP) program for boys at risk for violence and delinquency.

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Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, University of Pittsburgh, 3811 O'Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA, 15213, USA,


Among the available treatments for disruptive behavior problems, a need remains for additional service options to reduce antisocial behavior and prevent further development along delinquent and violent pathways. The Stop Now and Plan (SNAP) Program is an intervention for antisocial behavior among boys between 6 and 11. This paper describes a randomized controlled treatment effectiveness study of SNAP versus standard behavioral health services. The treatment program was delivered to youth with aggressive, rule-breaking, or antisocial behavior in excess of clinical criterion levels. Outcomes were measured at 3, 9, and 15 months from baseline. Youth in the SNAP condition showed significantly greater reduction in aggression, conduct problems, and overall externalizing behavior, as well as counts of oppositional defiant disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms. Additional benefits for SNAP were observed on measures of depression and anxiety. Further analyses indicated that the SNAP program was more effective among those with a higher severity of initial behavioral problems. At 1 year follow-up, treatment benefits for SNAP were maintained on some outcome measures (aggression, ADHD and ODD, depression and anxiety) but not others. Although overall juvenile justice system contact was not significantly different, youth in SNAP had significantly fewer charges against them relative to those standard services. The SNAP Program, when contrasted with standard services alone, was associated with greater, clinically meaningful, reductions in targeted behaviors. It may be particularly effective for youth with more severe behavioral problems and may result in improvements in internalizing problems as well.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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