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Am J Hematol. 2014 Jul;89(7):714-20. doi: 10.1002/ajh.23726. Epub 2014 Apr 18.

Risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma after solid organ transplantation in the United States.

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Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Department of Health and Human Services, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland; Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program, Division of Cancer Prevention, Department of Health and Human Services, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.


Non-Hodgkin lymphoma arising in the context of immunosuppression is an important adverse outcome after solid organ transplantation. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most commonly diagnosed subtype of post-transplantation non-Hodgkin lymphoma, but few studies of transplant recipients have examined subtype-specific risks. Therefore, we examined DLBCL risk in the Transplant Cancer Match Study, including registry-based cancer ascertainment among 96,615 solid organ transplants performed from 2000 to 2008. We determined standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals comparing DLBCL risk in transplant recipients with that in the general population, and used multivariable Poisson regression models to assess the impact of potential risk factors. We identified 321 incident cases of DLBCL, over 12 times more than expected based on general population rates (SIR = 12.6, 95% confidence interval = 11.2-14.0). SIRs were highest in young recipients and those receiving a lung or pancreas/kidney-pancreas transplant, and were greatly elevated for extranodal DLBCLs at the site of the transplantation compared with other sites. DLBCL risk was highest in the first year following transplantation, and SIRs for early-onset DLBCL risk were elevated in association with Epstein-Barr virus-negative serostatus and use of polyclonal antibody induction therapy. In conclusion, associations between recipient and transplant factors and post-transplantation DLBCL risk suggest a complicated interrelationship among multiple risk factors and timing of disease.

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