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Allergy. 2014 Jun;69(6):699-707. doi: 10.1111/all.12403. Epub 2014 Apr 18.

Transforming growth factor-beta 1 pathways in inflammatory airway diseases.

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Department of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.


Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) has been reported being involved in the remodeling and immunosuppression processes of inflammatory airway diseases; understanding the regulation of TGF-β1 is therefore a key to unravel the pathomechanisms of these diseases. This review briefly summarizes the current knowledge on the influencing factors for driving TGF-β1 and its regulatory pathways in inflammatory airway diseases and discusses possible therapeutic approaches to TGF-β1 control. The factors include smoking and oxidative stress, prostaglandins (PGs), leukotrienes (LTs), bradykinin (BK), and microRNAs (miRs). Based on the summary, new innovative treatment strategies may be developed for inflammatory airway diseases with an impaired expression of TGF-β1.


airway diseases; influencing factors; oxidative stress; smoking; transforming growth factor-beta

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