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Br J Pharmacol. 2014 Oct;171(20):4636-72. doi: 10.1111/bph.12735. Epub 2014 Jul 2.

Role of cues and contexts on drug-seeking behaviour.

Author information

1
Behavioural Neuroscience Division, The Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, Parkville, Vic., Australia; Florey Department of Neuroscience and Mental Health, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Vic., Australia.

Abstract

Environmental stimuli are powerful mediators of craving and relapse in substance-abuse disorders. This review examined how animal models have been used to investigate the cognitive mechanisms through which cues are able to affect drug-seeking behaviour. We address how animal models can describe the way drug-associated cues come to facilitate the development and persistence of drug taking, as well as how these cues are critical to the tendency to relapse that characterizes substance-abuse disorders. Drug-associated cues acquire properties of conditioned reinforcement, incentive motivation and discriminative control, which allow them to influence drug-seeking behaviour. Using these models, researchers have been able to investigate the pharmacology subserving the behavioural impact of environmental stimuli, some of which we highlight. Subsequently, we examine whether the impact of drug-associated stimuli can be attenuated via a process of extinction, and how this question is addressed in the laboratory. We discuss how preclinical research has been translated into behavioural therapies targeting substance abuse, as well as highlight potential developments to therapies that might produce more enduring changes in behaviour.

PMID:
24749941
PMCID:
PMC4209936
DOI:
10.1111/bph.12735
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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