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PeerJ. 2014 Apr 1;2:e335. doi: 10.7717/peerj.335. eCollection 2014.

Predicting changes in language skills between 2 and 3 years in the EDEN mother-child cohort.

Author information

1
Laboratoire de Sciences Cognitives et Psycholinguistique, Ecole Normale Supérieure, CNRS, EHESS , Paris , France ; Hôpital Robert Debré, Service de Psychopathologie de l'Enfant et de l'Adolescent, APHP , Paris , France.
2
Inserm, Centre for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health (CESP), Epidemiology of Diabetes and Renal Diseases Lifelong Approach Team , Villejuif , France ; University Paris-Sud, UMRS , Villejuif , France.
3
Laboratoire de Sciences Cognitives et Psycholinguistique, Ecole Normale Supérieure, CNRS, EHESS , Paris , France.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To examine the factors predicting changes in language skills between 2 and 3 years.

METHODS:

By using longitudinal data concerning 1002 children from the EDEN study, linear regression was used to predict 3-year language performance from 2-year language performance and the risk factors associated with language delays. Logistic regressions were performed to examine two change trajectories: children who fall below the 10th percentile of language skills between 2 and 3 years (declining trajectory), and those who rose above the 10th percentile (resilient trajectory).

RESULTS:

The final linear model accounted for 43% of the variance in 3-year language scores, with 2-year language scores accounting for 22%. Exposure to alcohol during pregnancy, earlier birth term, lower level of parental education and lower frequency of maternal stimulation were associated with the declining trajectory. Breastfeeding was associated with the resilient trajectory.

CONCLUSIONS:

This study provides a better understanding of the natural history of early language delays by identifying biological and social factors that predict changes in language skills between the ages of 2 and 3 years.

KEYWORDS:

Child; Language delays; Longitudinal study; Preschool; Trajectory

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