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JIMD Rep. 2014;15:1-11. doi: 10.1007/8904_2014_296. Epub 2014 Apr 19.

Lysine-Restricted Diet as Adjunct Therapy for Pyridoxine-Dependent Epilepsy: The PDE Consortium Consensus Recommendations.

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Centre for Molecular Medicine and Therapeutics, 3091-950 West 28th Avenue, Vancouver, Canada, V5Z 4H4,



Seventy-five percent of patients with pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy (PDE) due to Antiquitin (ATQ) deficiency suffer from developmental delay and/or intellectual disability (IQ < 70) despite seizure control. An observational study showed that adjunct treatment with a lysine-restricted diet is safe, results in partial normalization of lysine intermediates in body fluids, and may have beneficial effects on seizure control and psychomotor development.


In analogy to the NICE guideline process, the international PDE Consortium, an open platform uniting scientists and clinicians working in the field of this metabolic epilepsy, during four workshops (2010-2013) developed a recommendation for a lysine-restricted diet in PDE, with the aim of standardizing its implementation and monitoring of patients. Additionally, a proposal for a further observational study is suggested.


(1) All patients with confirmed ATQ deficiency are eligible for adjunct treatment with lysine-restricted diet, unless treatment with pyridoxine alone has resulted in complete symptom resolution, including normal behavior and development. (2) Lysine restriction should be started as early as possible; the optimal duration remains undetermined. (3) The diet should be implemented and the patient be monitored according to these recommendations in order to assure best possible quality of care and safety.


The implementation of this recommendation will provide a unique and a much needed opportunity to gather data with which to refine the recommendation as well as improve our understanding of outcomes of individuals affected by this rare disease. We therefore propose an international observational study that would utilize freely accessible, online data sharing technologies to generate more evidence.

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