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Water Res. 2014 Jul 1;58:92-101. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2014.03.032. Epub 2014 Mar 22.

Greywater use in Israel and worldwide: standards and prospects.

Author information

Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, B. Institutes for Desert Research, Kiryat Sde-Boker 84990, Israel. Electronic address:
Adel Consulting, Zichron Yaakov, Israel. Electronic address:
The Ministry of Health, State of Israel, Jerusalem, Israel. Electronic address:
Faculty of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Israel. Electronic address:
Environment and Health, Herzlia, Israel. Electronic address:
Environment and Health, Raanana, Israel. Electronic address:
The Standards Institute of Israel, Ramat Aviv, Tel-Aviv, Israel. Electronic address:


Water shortage around the world enhanced the search for alternative sources. Greywater (GW) can serve as a solution for water demands especially in arid and semi-arid zones. However, issues considered which include acceptability of GW segregation as a separate water treated stream, allowing its use onsite. Consequently, it is the one of next forthcoming water resources that will be used, primarily in the growing mega-cities. It will be even more rentable when combined with the roof runoff water harvesting and condensing water from air-conditioning systems. Reuse of GW is as well beneficial in the mega-cities subject to the high expenses associated with wastewater and fresh water conveyance in the opposite direction. The main problem associated with GW reuse is the quality of the water and the targeted reuse options. At least two main options can be identified: the public sector that is ready to reuse the GW and the private sector which raises extra issues related to the reuse risks. These risk stems from the on yard use of GW, relatively close to the household location. The main focus of the Israeli guidelines for GW use is on the private and single house. The problem is less rigorous in public facilities, where the amounts are relatively large and the raw GW is relatively diluted. The two main principles adopted for reuse are: (i) greywater can be minimally treated since it differs from the black wastes, and; (ii) no contact exists with the resident around. The aggravated standards are an indication of the sensitivity issues related to the problem.


Criteria; Greywater; Private sector; Public sector; Reuse

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