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J Surg Res. 2014 Jul;190(1):1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2014.03.051. Epub 2014 Mar 22.

Aortic valve calcification is mediated by a differential response of aortic valve interstitial cells to inflammation.

Author information

1
The Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Colorado School of Medicine. Electronic address: Neil.Venardos@ucdenver.edu.
2
The Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Colorado School of Medicine.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Although calcific aortic stenosis is common, calcification of the other three heart valves is not. The aortic valve interstitial cell (VIC) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of aortic stenosis. Proinflammatory stimulation of aortic VICs induces an osteogenic and inflammatory phenotypic change. We hypothesized that the VICs of the other heart valves do not undergo these changes. Using isolated human VICs from normal aortic, mitral, pulmonary, and tricuspid valves, our purpose was to compare the osteogenic response to proinflammatory stimulation via toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4).

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Aortic, pulmonic, mitral, and tricuspid (n=4 for each valve type) VICs were isolated from hearts valves explanted from patients undergoing cardiac transplantation. Cells were cultured and grown to confluence in passage 2-6 before treatment with Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (100-200 ng/mL) for 24 or 48 h. Cells were characterized by immunofluorescent staining. TLR-4 expression was analyzed (immunoblotting, flow cytometry). Bone morphogenetic protein 2 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 production were determined (immunoblotting). Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Statistics were by Mann-Whitney U test.

RESULTS:

TLR-4 stimulation induced bone morphogenetic protein 2 production only in aortic VICs (P<0.05). Intra-cellular adhesion molecule 1 production and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 secretion increased in a similar fashion among TLR-4-stimulated VICs from all four valves.

CONCLUSIONS:

Proinflammatory stimulation induces an osteogenic phenotype in aortic VICs but not mitral, pulmonic, or tricuspid VICs. We conclude that this differential osteogenic response of aortic VICs contributes to the pathogenesis of calcific aortic stenosis.

KEYWORDS:

Aortic stenosis; TLR-4; Valve interstitial cell

PMID:
24746950
PMCID:
PMC4053510
DOI:
10.1016/j.jss.2014.03.051
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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