Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Addict Behav. 2014 Jul;39(7):1191-6. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2014.03.020. Epub 2014 Mar 26.

What are young adults smoking in their hookahs? A latent class analysis of substances smoked.

Author information

1
Department of Social Sciences and Health Policy, Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, United States. Electronic address: ESutfin@wakehealth.edu.
2
Department of Social Sciences and Health Policy, Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, United States.
3
Department of Biostatistical Sciences, Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, United States.

Abstract

RATIONALE:

Hookah smoking continues to be a popular form of tobacco use, especially among college students. Although hookahs are commonly used to smoke tobacco, anecdotal evidence suggests other substances, including herbal shisha, marijuana and hashish may be used. However, little is known about the variety of substances smoked in hookahs, or correlates associated with different substances smoked.

METHODS:

In fall 2010, 3447 students from 8 colleges in N.C. completed an online survey.

RESULTS:

44% of students reported ever smoking tobacco from a hookah. Of those ever users, 90% reported smoking flavored tobacco in a hookah, 45% marijuana, 37% herbal (non-tobacco) shisha, and 18% hashish. Latent class analysis revealed two distinct classes. The most prevalent class (77%) primarily smoked flavored tobacco, with minimal use of herbal shisha and marijuana and virtually no use of hashish. The second class (23%) primarily smoked marijuana, hashish and flavored tobacco with moderate use of herbal shisha. Logistic regression analysis adjusting for clustering within schools revealed that males, illicit drug users, daily, nondaily and former cigarette smokers and those whose mothers had higher levels of education were significantly more likely to be in the second class compared to the first.

CONCLUSIONS:

Rates of lifetime use of hookah were high in our sample of college students. While the majority of hookah users smoked tobacco in hookahs, they also smoked other substances, notably marijuana and herbal shisha. Prevention efforts should recognize that students are using hookahs to smoke a variety of substances.

KEYWORDS:

College students; Hookah; Tobacco

PMID:
24746345
PMCID:
PMC4091668
DOI:
10.1016/j.addbeh.2014.03.020
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center