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Expert Rev Mol Diagn. 2014 May;14(4):439-52. doi: 10.1586/14737159.2014.905202.

Glioma diagnostics and biomarkers: an ongoing challenge in the field of medicine and science.

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Department of Neurology and Program in Neuroscience, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Suite 340, 175 Cambridge Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA.


Glioma is the most common brain tumor. For the more aggressive form, glioblastoma, standard treatment includes surgical resection, irradiation with adjuvant temozolomide and, on recurrence, experimental chemotherapy. However, the survival of patients remains poor. There is a critical need for minimally invasive biomarkers for diagnosis and as measures of response to therapeutic interventions. Glioma shed extracellular vesicles (EVs), which invade the surrounding tissue and circulate within both the cerebrospinal fluid and the systemic circulation. These tumor-derived EVs and their content serve as an attractive source of biomarkers. In this review, we discuss the current state of the art of biomarkers for glioma with emphasis on their EV derivation.

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