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Physiol Rep. 2014 Feb 25;2(2):e00250. doi: 10.1002/phy2.250. eCollection 2014 Feb 1.

Liver but not adipose tissue is responsive to the pattern of enteral feeding.

Author information

1
Molecular Physiology and Biophysics Department, School of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee.
2
Molecular Physiology and Biophysics Department, School of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee ; College of Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee.

Abstract

Nutritional support is an important aspect of medical care, providing calories to patients with compromised nutrient intake. Metabolism has a diurnal pattern, responding to the light cycle and food intake, which in turn can drive changes in liver and adipose tissue metabolism. In this study, we assessed the response of liver and white adipose tissue (WAT) to different feeding patterns under nutritional support (total enteral nutrition or TEN). Mice received continuous isocaloric TEN for 10 days or equal calories of chow once a day (Ch). TEN was given either at a constant (CN, same infusion rate during 24 h) or variable rate (VN, 80% of calories fed at night, 20% at day). Hepatic lipogenesis and carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) expression increased in parallel with the diurnal feeding pattern. Relative to Ch, both patterns of enteral feeding increased adiposity. This increase was not associated with enhanced lipogenic gene expression in WAT; moreover, lipogenesis was unaffected by the feeding pattern. Surprisingly, leptin and adiponectin expression increased. Moreover, nutritional support markedly increased hepatic and adipose FGF21 expression in CN and VN, despite being considered a fasting hormone. In summary, liver but not WAT, respond to the pattern of feeding. While hepatic lipid metabolism adapts to the pattern of nutrient availability, WAT does not. Moreover, sustained delivery of nutrients in an isocaloric diet can cause adiposity without the proinflammatory state observed in hypercaloric feeding. Thus, the liver but not adipose tissue is responsive to the pattern of feeding behavior.

KEYWORDS:

Enteral delivery; feeding pattern; lipogenesis; nutritional support

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