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J Nucl Med. 2014 Jun;55(6):967-75. doi: 10.2967/jnumed.113.131490. Epub 2014 Apr 17.

Hepatobiliary scintigraphy in 2014.

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Division of Nuclear Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins Medical Institute, Baltimore, Maryland


Cholescintigraphy with (99m)Tc-hepatobiliary radiopharmaceuticals has been an important, clinically useful diagnostic imaging study for almost 4 decades. It continues to be in much clinical demand; however, the indications, methodology, and interpretative criteria have evolved over the years. This review will emphasize state-of-the-art methodology and diagnostic criteria for various clinical indications, including acute cholecystitis, chronic acalculous gallbladder disease, high-grade and partial biliary obstruction, and the postcholecystectomy pain syndrome, including sphincter-of-Oddi dysfunction and biliary atresia. The review will also emphasize the use of diagnostic pharmacologic interventions, particularly sincalide.


acute cholecystitis; biliary dyskinesia; cholescintigraphy; chronic acalculous gallbladder disease; chronic cholecystitis; hepatobiliary scintigraphy

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