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Anesthesiology. 2014 Aug;121(2):249-59. doi: 10.1097/ALN.0000000000000266.

Limb remote ischemic preconditioning attenuates lung injury after pulmonary resection under propofol-remifentanil anesthesia: a randomized controlled study.

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From the Department of Anesthesiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.



Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) may confer the protection in critical organs. The authors hypothesized that limb RIPC would reduce lung injury in patients undergoing pulmonary resection.


In a randomized, prospective, parallel, controlled trial, 216 patients undergoing elective thoracic pulmonary resection under one-lung ventilation with propofol-remifentanil anesthesia were randomized 1:1 to receive either limb RIPC or conventional lung resection (control). Three cycles of 5-min ischemia/5-min reperfusion induced by a blood pressure cuff served as RIPC stimulus. The primary outcome was PaO2/FIO2. Secondary outcomes included other pulmonary variables, the incidence of in-hospital complications, markers of oxidative stress, and inflammatory response.


Limb RIPC significantly increased PaO2/FIO2 compared with control at 30 and 60 min after one-lung ventilation, 30 min after re-expansion, and 6 h after operation (238 ± 52 vs. 192 ± 67, P = 0.03; 223 ± 66 vs. 184 ± 64, P = 0.01; 385 ± 61 vs. 320 ± 79, P = 0.003; 388 ± 52 vs. 317 ± 46, P = 0.001, respectively). In comparison with control, it also significantly reduced serum levels of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α at 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after operation and malondialdehyde levels at 60 min after one-lung ventilation and 30 min after re-expansion (all P < 0.01). The incidence of acute lung injury and the length of postoperative hospital stay were markedly reduced by limb RIPC compared with control (all P < 0.05).


Limb RIPC attenuates acute lung injury via improving intraoperative pulmonary oxygenation in patients without severe pulmonary disease after lung resection under propofol-remifentanil anesthesia.

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