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PLoS One. 2014 Apr 16;9(4):e95293. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0095293. eCollection 2014.

Foreign body reaction associated with PET and PET/chitosan electrospun nanofibrous abdominal meshes.

Author information

1
QOPNA Research Unit, Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal; Biotechnology and Biosciences Post-Graduation Program, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Brazil.
2
Department of Cell Biology, Embryology, and Genetics, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Brazil.
3
Plant Morphogenesis and Biochemistry Laboratory, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Brazil.
4
Epagri, Florianopolis, Brazil.
5
Federal Institute of Education, Science, and Technology of Santa Catarina, Garopaba, Brazil.
6
Department of Pediatrics, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Brazil.
7
Biotechnology and Biosciences Post-Graduation Program, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Brazil.
8
QOPNA Research Unit, Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal.

Abstract

Electrospun materials have been widely explored for biomedical applications because of their advantageous characteristics, i.e., tridimensional nanofibrous structure with high surface-to-volume ratio, high porosity, and pore interconnectivity. Furthermore, considering the similarities between the nanofiber networks and the extracellular matrix (ECM), as well as the accepted role of changes in ECM for hernia repair, electrospun polymer fiber assemblies have emerged as potential materials for incisional hernia repair. In this work, we describe the application of electrospun non-absorbable mats based on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) in the repair of abdominal defects, comparing the performance of these meshes with that of a commercial polypropylene mesh and a multifilament PET mesh. PET and PET/chitosan electrospun meshes revealed good performance during incisional hernia surgery, post-operative period, and no evidence of intestinal adhesion was found. The electrospun meshes were flexible with high suture retention, showing tensile strengths of 3 MPa and breaking strains of 8-33%. Nevertheless, a significant foreign body reaction (FBR) was observed in animals treated with the nanofibrous materials. Animals implanted with PET and PET/chitosan electrospun meshes (fiber diameter of 0.71 ± 0.28 µm and 3.01 ± 0.72 µm, respectively) showed, respectively, foreign body granuloma formation, averaging 4.2-fold and 7.4-fold greater than the control commercial mesh group (Marlex). Many foreign body giant cells (FBGC) involving nanofiber pieces were also found in the PET and PET/chitosan groups (11.9 and 19.3 times more FBGC than control, respectively). In contrast, no important FBR was observed for PET microfibers (fiber diameter = 18.9 ± 0.21 µm). Therefore, we suggest that the reduced dimension and the high surface-to-volume ratio of the electrospun fibers caused the FBR reaction, pointing out the need for further studies to elucidate the mechanisms underlying interactions between cells/tissues and nanofibrous materials in order to gain a better understanding of the implantation risks associated with nanostructured biomaterials.

PMID:
24740104
PMCID:
PMC3989343
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0095293
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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