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Aging Male. 2014 Sep;17(3):147-54. doi: 10.3109/13685538.2014.908460. Epub 2014 Apr 16.

Performance of Massachusetts Male Aging Study (MMAS) and androgen deficiency in the aging male (ADAM) questionnaires in the prediction of free testosterone in patients aged 40 years or older treated in outpatient regimen.

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Urology Department, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul , Porto Algre , Brazil.



At present, calculated free testosterone assessment is considered as the gold standard in diagnosing male hypogonadism. However, this assessment is not available for all the individuals diagnosed with decreased testicular function. The investigators of this study were, thus, prompted to evaluate whether the androgen deficiency in the aging male (ADAM) and the Massachusetts Male Ageing Study (MMAS) questionnaires could be used to replace biochemical parameters in the diagnosis for hypogonadism in men aged 40 years and above.


We evaluated 460 men, aged 40 years and above, all volunteers of a screening program for prostate cancer based at the Hospital de Clínicas of Porto Alegre. In this study, we assessed the efficiency of the ADAM and MMAS questionnaires in diagnosing Brazilian men with low levels of total, calculated free and bioavailable testosterone.


The sensitivity of the ADAM questionnaire in diagnosing the calculated free testosterone was 73.6%, whereas specificity was 31.9%. ADAM could be used to properly classify our cohort into normal or hypogonadal individuals in 52.75% of the cases. The sensitivity of the MMAS questionnaire was 59.9%, whereas the specificity was 42.9%, resulting in a successful classification of 51.4% of the patients.


The ADAM and MMAS questionnaires showed adequate sensitivity in diagnosing male patients with low levels of free testosterone. However, because of the lack of specificity, these tools cannot replace calculated free testosterone assessments in men aged 40 years and above.


ADAM; MMAS; free testosterone; male aging; screening questionnaire

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