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Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:418563. doi: 10.1155/2014/418563. Epub 2014 Mar 13.

Experimental inoculation of BFDV-positive budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) with two Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolates.

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Department of Pathology and Veterinary Diagnostics, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Nowoursynowska 159c Street, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland.
Department of Microbiology, Institute of Tuberculosis and Pulmonary Diseases, Płocka 26 Street, 01-138 Warsaw, Poland.
University of Information Technology and Management in Rzeszow, H. Sucharskiego 2 Street, 35-225 Rzeszow, Poland.


Beak and feather disease virus- (BFDV-) positive (naturally infected) but clinically healthy budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) were inoculated with two isolates of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolated from naturally infected golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) and peafowl (Pavo cristatus). During a period of more than two months after inoculation, samples of cloacal and crop swabs, faeces, and blood were obtained for BFDV and Mycobacterium avium testing with PCR. Birds were euthanized nine weeks after inoculation. All infected budgerigars developed signs typical of mycobacteriosis, but more advanced clinical and pathological changes were visible in the group infected with the pheasant isolate. Only a few cloacal and crop swab samples were positive for Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium despite advanced pathological changes in the internal organs. In the groups infected with mycobacterium isolates the frequency of BFDV-positive samples was higher than in the control group. In the infected groups the frequency of BFDV was substantially higher in the cloacal swabs of birds inoculated with the pheasant isolate than in the peafowl-isolate-infected group.

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