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Nutrients. 2014 Apr 14;6(4):1539-53. doi: 10.3390/nu6041539.

Dietary patterns in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Author information

1
Molecular Epidemiology Branch, National Cancer Center, 323 Ilsan-ro, Ilsandong-gu, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do 410-769, Korea. eastsea93@hanmail.net.
2
Molecular Epidemiology Branch, National Cancer Center, 323 Ilsan-ro, Ilsandong-gu, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do 410-769, Korea. ellebass@gmail.com.
3
Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Dong-A University Hospital, 26, Daesingongwon-ro, Seo-gu, Busan 602-715, Korea. juhui978@dau.ac.kr.
4
Heavy Metal Exposure Environmental Health Center, Dong-A University, 32, Daesingongwon-ro, Seo-gu, Busan 602-714, Korea. juhui978@dau.ac.kr.
5
Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Dong-A University Hospital, 26 Daesingongwon-ro, Seo-gu, Busan 602-715, Korea. bmchoe@dau.ac.kr.
6
Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Dong-A University Hospital, 26 Daesingongwon-ro, Seo-gu, Busan 602-715, Korea. pjhkorea@hanmail.net.
7
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, College of Medicine, Inje University Busan Paik Hospital, 75 Bokji-ro, Busanjin-gu, Busan 614-735, Korea. forevery99@hanmail.net.
8
Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Dong-A University Hospital, 26 Daesingongwon-ro, Seo-gu, Busan 602-715, Korea. pedendo@dau.ac.kr.
9
Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Dong-A University Hospital, 26 Daesingongwon-ro, Seo-gu, Busan 602-715, Korea. hwchueh@dau.ac.kr.
10
Department of Pediatrics, Kosin University Gospel Hospital, 262, Gamcheon-ro, Seo-gu, Busan 602-702, Korea. agasoa@hanmail.net.
11
Department of Pediatrics, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine, 179, Gudeok-ro, Seo-gu, Busan 602-739, Korea. glory0123@hanmail.net.
12
Molecular Epidemiology Branch, National Cancer Center, 323 Ilsan-ro, Ilsandong-gu, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do 410-769, Korea. jskim@ncc.re.kr.

Abstract

The role of diet in the behavior of children has been controversial, but the association of several nutritional factors with childhood behavioral disorders has been continually suggested. We conducted a case-control study to identify dietary patterns associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The study included 192 elementary school students aged seven to 12 years. Three non-consecutive 24-h recall (HR) interviews were employed to assess dietary intake, and 32 predefined food groups were considered in a principal components analysis (PCA). PCA identified four major dietary patterns: the "traditional" pattern, the "seaweed-egg" pattern, the "traditional-healthy" pattern, and the "snack" pattern. The traditional-healthy pattern is characterized by a diet low in fat and high in carbohydrates as well as high intakes of fatty acids and minerals. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of ADHD for the highest tertile of the traditional-healthy pattern in comparison with the lowest tertile was 0.31 (95% CI: 0.12-0.79). The score of the snack pattern was positively associated with the risk of ADHD, but a significant association was observed only in the second tertile. A significant association between ADHD and the dietary pattern score was not found for the other two dietary patterns. In conclusion, the traditional-healthy dietary pattern was associated with lower odds having ADHD.

PMID:
24736898
PMCID:
PMC4011050
DOI:
10.3390/nu6041539
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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