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PLoS One. 2014 Apr 15;9(4):e94431. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094431. eCollection 2014.

National patterns in environmental injustice and inequality: outdoor NO2 air pollution in the United States.

Author information

1
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States of America.
2
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States of America; Department of Soil, Water and Climate, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States of America.

Abstract

We describe spatial patterns in environmental injustice and inequality for residential outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations in the contiguous United States. Our approach employs Census demographic data and a recently published high-resolution dataset of outdoor NO2 concentrations. Nationally, population-weighted mean NO2 concentrations are 4.6 ppb (38%, p<0.01) higher for nonwhites than for whites. The environmental health implications of that concentration disparity are compelling. For example, we estimate that reducing nonwhites' NO2 concentrations to levels experienced by whites would reduce Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) mortality by ∼7,000 deaths per year, which is equivalent to 16 million people increasing their physical activity level from inactive (0 hours/week of physical activity) to sufficiently active (>2.5 hours/week of physical activity). Inequality for NO2 concentration is greater than inequality for income (Atkinson Index: 0.11 versus 0.08). Low-income nonwhite young children and elderly people are disproportionately exposed to residential outdoor NO2. Our findings establish a national context for previous work that has documented air pollution environmental injustice and inequality within individual US metropolitan areas and regions. Results given here can aid policy-makers in identifying locations with high environmental injustice and inequality. For example, states with both high injustice and high inequality (top quintile) for outdoor residential NO2 include New York, Michigan, and Wisconsin.

PMID:
24736569
PMCID:
PMC3988057
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0094431
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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