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Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2014 Aug;75:32-52. doi: 10.1016/j.addr.2014.04.005. Epub 2014 Apr 13.

Dry powders for oral inhalation free of lactose carrier particles.

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School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland. Electronic address:
School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland.


Dry powder inhaler (DPI) products have traditionally comprised a simple formulation of micronised drug mixed with a carrier excipient, typically lactose monohydrate. The presence of the carrier is aimed at overcoming issues of poor flowability and dispersibility, associated with the cohesive nature of small, micronised active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) particles. Both the powder blend and the DPI device must be carefully designed so as to ensure detachment of the micronised drug from the carrier excipient on inhalation. Over the last two decades there has been a significant body of research undertaken on the design of carrier-free formulations for DPI products. Many of these formulations are based on sophisticated particle engineering techniques; a common aim in formulation design of carrier-free products being to reduce the intrinsic cohesion of the particles, while maximising dispersion and delivery from the inhaler. In tandem with the development of alternative formulations has been the development of devices designed to ensure the efficient delivery and dispersion of carrier-free powder on inhalation. In this review we examine approaches to both the powder formulation and inhaler design for carrier-free DPI products.


Carrier-free; Dry powder inhalers; Inhaler devices; Inhaler excipients; Particle engineering; Porous particles

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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