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Neurosci Bull. 2014 Apr;30(2):233-42. doi: 10.1007/s12264-013-1412-1. Epub 2014 Apr 15.

Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease.

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Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology of Shenzhen, Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shenzhen, 518055, China.


Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder that takes about a decade to develop, making early diagnosis possible. Clinically, the diagnosis of AD is complicated, costly, and inaccurate, so it is urgent to find specific biomarkers. Due to its multifactorial nature, a panel of biomarkers for the multiple pathologies of AD, such as cerebral amyloidogenesis, neuronal dysfunction, synapse loss, oxidative stress, and inflammation, are most promising for accurate diagnosis. Highly sensitive and high-throughput proteomic techniques can be applied to develop a panel of novel biomarkers for AD. In this review, we discuss the metabolism and diagnostic performance of the well-established core candidate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers (β-amyloid, total tau, and hyperphosphorylated tau). Meanwhile, novel promising CSF biomarkers, especially those identified by proteomics, updated in the last five years are also extensively discussed. Furthermore, we provide perspectives on how biomarker discovery for AD is evolving.

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