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Magn Reson Med. 2015 Apr;73(4):1359-69. doi: 10.1002/mrm.25256. Epub 2014 Apr 14.

Exchange kinetics by inversion transfer: integrated analysis of the phosphorus metabolite kinetic exchanges in resting human skeletal muscle at 7 T.

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Advanced Imaging Research Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA; Department of Radiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA.



To develop an inversion pulse-based, chemical exchange saturation transfer-like method for detection of (31) P magnetization exchanges among all nuclear magnetic resonance visible metabolites suitable for providing an integrated kinetic analysis of phosphorus exchange reactions in vivo.


The exchange kinetics by inversion transfer (EKIT) sequence includes application of a frequency-selective inversion pulse arrayed over the range of relevant (31) P frequencies, followed by a constant delay and a hard readout pulse. A series of EKIT spectra, each given by a plot of Z-magnetization for each metabolite of interest versus frequency of the inversion pulse, can be generated from this single data set.


EKIT spectra reflect chemical exchange due to known biochemical reactions, cross-relaxation effects, and relayed magnetization transfers due to both processes. The rate constants derived from EKIT data collected on resting human skeletal muscle were: ATP synthesis via ATP synthase (0.050 ± 0.016 s(-1) ), ATP synthesis via creatine kinase (0.264 ± 0.023 s(-1) ), and cross-relaxation between neighboring spin pairs within ATP (0.164 ± 0.022 s(-1) ).


EKIT provides a simple, alternative method to detect chemical exchange, cross relaxation, and relayed magnetization transfer effects in human skeletal muscle at 7 T.


T1 relaxation time; chemical exchange; magnetization transfer; nuclear Overhauser effects; skeletal muscle

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