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Exp Neurol. 2014 Dec;262 Pt A:66-71. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2014.04.002. Epub 2014 Apr 13.

Laquinimod, an up-and-coming immunomodulatory agent for treatment of multiple sclerosis.

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Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA.
Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. Electronic address:


Laquinimod is a novel oral drug that is currently being evaluated for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Although the mode of action of laquinimod remains to be fully elucidated, current knowledge indicates that laquinimod exerts beneficial activities both on the peripheral immune system and within the central nervous system (CNS). The immunomodulatory properties have been deciphered primarily from studies of laquinimod in the animal model of multiple sclerosis, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Data indicate that laquinimod has a primary effect on innate immunity. Laquinimod modulates the function of various myeloid antigen presenting cell populations, which then downregulate proinflammatory T cell responses. Further, data also indicate that laquinimod acts directly on resident cells within the CNS to reduce demyelination and axonal damage. Results from clinical trials that tested laquinimod in RRMS demonstrated that it reduced relapse rate and the mean cumulative number of active lesions, and had a more marked reduction in disability progression than relapse rate. Laquinimod treatment was associated with an excellent safety and tolerability profile. These data indicate that laquinimod will offer a valuable new treatment option for RRMS patients.


Disease modifying therapy; Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis; Immunomodulation; Laquinimod; Multiple sclerosis

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