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Talanta. 2014 Jun;123:45-53. doi: 10.1016/j.talanta.2014.01.047. Epub 2014 Jan 30.

New multilayer coating using quaternary ammonium chitosan and κ-carrageenan in capillary electrophoresis: application in fast analysis of betaine and methionine.

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Department of Science and Food Technology, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil.
Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil.
Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis CP 88040-900, SC, Brazil.
Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis CP 88040-900, SC, Brazil. Electronic address:


The aim of this study was to develop a new multilayer coating with crosslinked quaternary ammonium chitosan (hydroxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan; HACC) and κ-carrageenan for use in capillary electrophoresis. A new semi-permanent multilayer coating was formed using the procedure developed and the method does not require the presence of polymers in the background electrolyte (BGE). The new capillary multilayer coating showed a cathodic electroosmotic flow (EOF) of around 30×10(-9) m(2) V(-1) s(-1) which is pH-independent in the range of pH 2 to 10. The enhanced EOF at low pH obtained contributed significantly to the development of a fast method of separation. The multilayer coating was then applied in the development of a fast separation method to determine betaine and methionine in pharmaceutical formulations by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). The BGE used to determine the betaine and methionine concentrations was composed of 10 mmol L(-1) tris(hydroxymethyl) aminomethane, 40 mmol L(-1) phosphoric acid and 10% (v/v) ethanol, at pH 2.1. A fused-silica capillary of 32 cm (50 µm ID×375 µm OD) was used in the experiments and samples and standards were analyzed employing the short-end injection procedure (8.5 cm effective length). The instrumental analysis time of the optimized method was 1.53 min (approx. 39 runs per hour). The validation of the proposed method for the determination of betaine and methionine showed good linearity (R(2)>0.999), adequate limit of detection (LOD <8 mg L(-1)) for the concentration in the samples and inter-day precision values lower than 3.5% (peak area and time migration). The results for the quantification of the amino acids in the samples determined by the CZE-UV method developed were statistically equal to those obtained with the comparative LC-MS/MS method according to the paired t-test with a confidence level of 95%.


Betaine; Capillary electrophoresis; Fast method; Methionine; Multilayer coating; Pharmaceutical formulations

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