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Science. 2014 Apr 11;344(6180):168-72. doi: 10.1126/science.1243005.

Central cell-derived peptides regulate early embryo patterning in flowering plants.

Author information

1
Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, OX1 3RB, UK.

Abstract

Plant embryogenesis initiates with the establishment of an apical-basal axis; however, the molecular mechanisms accompanying this early event remain unclear. Here, we show that a small cysteine-rich peptide family is required for formation of the zygotic basal cell lineage and proembryo patterning in Arabidopsis. EMBRYO SURROUNDING FACTOR 1 (ESF1) peptides accumulate before fertilization in central cell gametes and thereafter in embryo-surrounding endosperm cells. Biochemical and structural analyses revealed cleavage of ESF1 propeptides to form biologically active mature peptides. Further, these peptides act in a non-cell-autonomous manner and synergistically with the receptor-like kinase SHORT SUSPENSOR to promote suspensor elongation through the YODA mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Our findings demonstrate that the second female gamete and its sexually derived endosperm regulate early embryonic patterning in flowering plants.

PMID:
24723605
DOI:
10.1126/science.1243005
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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