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J Biol Chem. 2014 May 30;289(22):15718-28. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M114.572099. Epub 2014 Apr 10.

The accessory factor Nef links HIV-1 to Tec/Btk kinases in an Src homology 3 domain-dependent manner.

Author information

1
From the Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15219 and the Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261.
2
From the Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15219 and.
3
From the Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15219 and tsmithga@pitt.edu.

Abstract

The HIV-1 Nef virulence factor interacts with multiple host cell-signaling proteins. Nef binds to the Src homology 3 domains of Src family kinases, resulting in kinase activation important for viral infectivity, replication, and MHC-I down-regulation. Itk and other Tec family kinases are also present in HIV target cells, and Itk has been linked to HIV-1 infectivity and replication. However, the molecular mechanism linking Itk to HIV-1 is unknown. In this study, we explored the interaction of Nef with Tec family kinases using a cell-based bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay. In this approach, interaction of Nef with a partner kinase juxtaposes nonfluorescent YFP fragments fused to the C terminus of each protein, resulting in YFP complementation and a bright fluorescent signal. Using bimolecular fluorescence complementation, we observed that Nef interacts with the Tec family members Bmx, Btk, and Itk but not Tec or Txk. Interaction with Nef occurs through the kinase Src homology 3 domains and localizes to the plasma membrane. Allelic variants of Nef from all major HIV-1 subtypes interacted strongly with Itk in this assay, demonstrating the highly conserved nature of this interaction. A selective small molecule inhibitor of Itk kinase activity (BMS-509744) potently blocked wild-type HIV-1 infectivity and replication, but not that of a Nef-defective mutant. Nef induced constitutive Itk activation in transfected cells that was sensitive to inhibitor treatment. Taken together, these results provide the first evidence that Nef interacts with cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases of the Tec family and suggest that Nef provides a mechanistic link between HIV-1 and Itk signaling in the viral life cycle.

KEYWORDS:

AIDS; HIV-1; Nonreceptor Tyrosine Kinase; SH3 Domains; Src

PMID:
24722985
PMCID:
PMC4140925
DOI:
10.1074/jbc.M114.572099
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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