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Diabetes Care. 2014 Jul;37(7):1824-30. doi: 10.2337/dc13-2899. Epub 2014 Apr 10.

The effects of a Mediterranean diet on the need for diabetes drugs and remission of newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: follow-up of a randomized trial.

Author information

1
Diabetes Unit, University Hospital at the Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy katherine.esposito@unina2.it.
2
Diabetes Unit, University Hospital at the Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy.
3
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, University Hospital at the Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To assess the long-term effects of dietary interventions on glycemic control, need for diabetes medications, and remission of type 2 diabetes.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:

Originally, in a two-arm trial design, overweight, middle-aged men and women with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes were randomized to a low-carbohydrate Mediterranean diet (LCMD; n = 108) or a low-fat diet (n = 107). After 4 years, participants who were still free of diabetes medications were further followed up until the primary end point (need of a diabetic drug); remission of diabetes (partial or complete) and changes in weight, glycemic control, and cardiovascular risk factors were also evaluated.

RESULTS:

The primary end point was reached in all participants after a total follow-up of 6.1 years in the low-fat group and 8.1 years in the LCMD group; median survival time was 2.8 years (95% CI 2.4-3.2) and 4.8 years (4.3-5.2), respectively. The unadjusted hazard ratio for the overall follow-up was 0.68 (0.50-0.89; P < 0.001). LCMD participants were more likely to experience any remission (partial or complete), with a prevalence of 14.7% (13.0-16.5%) during the first year and 5.0% (4.4-5.6%) during year 6 compared with 4.1% (3.1-5.0%) at year 1 and 0% at year 6 in the low-fat diet group.

CONCLUSIONS:

In patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, an LCMD resulted in a greater reduction of HbA1c levels, higher rate of diabetes remission, and delayed need for diabetes medication compared with a low-fat diet.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00725257.

PMID:
24722497
DOI:
10.2337/dc13-2899
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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