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PLoS One. 2014 Apr 10;9(4):e94270. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094270. eCollection 2014.

Improved annotation of 3' untranslated regions and complex loci by combination of strand-specific direct RNA sequencing, RNA-Seq and ESTs.

Author information

1
Division of Computational Biology, University of Dundee, Dundee, United Kingdom; Division of Biological Chemistry and Drug Discovery, University of Dundee, Dundee, United Kingdom; Centre for Gene Regulation and Expression, University of Dundee, Dundee, United Kingdom.
2
Division of Computational Biology, University of Dundee, Dundee, United Kingdom.
3
Division of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Dundee, Dundee, United Kingdom.
4
Division of Plant Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee, United Kingdom.
5
Centre for Dermatology and Genetic Medicine, University of Dundee, Dundee, United Kingdom.
6
Division of Plant Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee, United Kingdom; Cell and Molecular Sciences, The James Hutton Institute, Dundee, United Kingdom.

Abstract

The reference annotations made for a genome sequence provide the framework for all subsequent analyses of the genome. Correct and complete annotation in addition to the underlying genomic sequence is particularly important when interpreting the results of RNA-seq experiments where short sequence reads are mapped against the genome and assigned to genes according to the annotation. Inconsistencies in annotations between the reference and the experimental system can lead to incorrect interpretation of the effect on RNA expression of an experimental treatment or mutation in the system under study. Until recently, the genome-wide annotation of 3' untranslated regions received less attention than coding regions and the delineation of intron/exon boundaries. In this paper, data produced for samples in Human, Chicken and A. thaliana by the novel single-molecule, strand-specific, Direct RNA Sequencing technology from Helicos Biosciences which locates 3' polyadenylation sites to within +/- 2 nt, were combined with archival EST and RNA-Seq data. Nine examples are illustrated where this combination of data allowed: (1) gene and 3' UTR re-annotation (including extension of one 3' UTR by 5.9 kb); (2) disentangling of gene expression in complex regions; (3) clearer interpretation of small RNA expression and (4) identification of novel genes. While the specific examples displayed here may become obsolete as genome sequences and their annotations are refined, the principles laid out in this paper will be of general use both to those annotating genomes and those seeking to interpret existing publically available annotations in the context of their own experimental data.

PMID:
24722185
PMCID:
PMC3983147
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0094270
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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