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J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther. 2013 Oct;18(4):303-10. doi: 10.5863/1551-6776-18.4.303.

Fondaparinux in an obese child with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and a history of renal failure.

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Department of Pharmacy, Clinical and Administrative Sciences, University of Oklahoma College of Pharmacy, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma ; Department of Pediatrics, University of Oklahoma College of Medicine, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.
Primary Children's Medical Center, Salt Lake City, Utah.
Rady Children's Hospital, University of California in San Diego, San Diego, California.
Department of Pathology, University of Oklahoma College of Medicine, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.
Department of Pediatrics, University of Oklahoma College of Medicine, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.


A 9-year-old obese child with a history of ulcerative colitis was admitted to the intensive care unit for significant blood loss, hemorrhagic shock, and acute renal failure. Following complications from total colectomy secondary to multiple perforations, the patient developed heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) and subsequent portal vein thrombosis. Subcutaneous (SQ) fondaparinux therapy was initiated because the patient was unable to transition to oral anticoagulation. An anti-factor Xa assay was developed and used to adjust his fondaparinux therapy. Based on hemorrhagic complications and fondaparinux-based anti-factor Xa assay results, the fondaparinux was adjusted to a final dosage of 4.5 mg (0.066 mg/kg) SQ daily. In children unable to transition to oral anticoagulation, fondaparinux may be an alternative for the treatment of thrombosis associated with HIT. We noted that our patient required a lower dose per kilogram of fondaparinux than described in previous published reports. Despite this lower dosage per kilogram, our patient developed bleeding despite dosage reductions; subsequently, a few doses were held. It is unclear if this was related to his obesity, history of renal failure, or a combination of factors. Future studies should determine the optimal dose for special populations of children (e.g., those with obesity and renal failure). Until then, clinicians should routinely monitor and titrate fondaparinux therapy, ideally using a fondaparinux-specific anti-factor Xa assay.


children; fondaparinux; heparin-induced thrombocytopenia; obesity

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