Send to

Choose Destination
J Atheroscler Thromb. 2014;21(8):755-67. Epub 2014 Apr 8.

Elevated small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol as a predictor for future cardiovascular events in patients with stable coronary artery disease.

Author information

The Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Showa University School of Medicine.



The aim of the present study was to investigate how small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sdLDL-C) compared with LDL-C affect the long-term prognosis in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD).


sdLDL-C measured by heparin magnesium precipitation and LDL particle size measured by non-denatured gradient-gel electrophoresis were compared in 190 consecutive CAD patients who underwent coronary arteriography between 2003 and 2004 who did or did not develop cardiovascular events during a seven-year follow-up period. Cardiovascular events were death caused by cardiovascular diseases(CVDs), onset of acute coronary syndrome, need for coronary and peripheral arterial revascularization, hospitalization for heart failure, surgical procedure for any CVDs, and/or hospitalization for stroke.


First-time cardiovascular events were observed in 72 patients. Those who experienced cardiovascular events were older and had higher prevalence rates of hypertension and diabetes; significantly higher Gensini coronary atherosclerotic scores; significantly higher levels of sdLDL-C, sdLDL-C/LDL-C, and LDL-C/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratios; and greater glycated hemoglobin(Hb)A1c and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels. They also had significantly smaller LDL particle sizes, HDL-C, apolipoprotein A-1, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) compared with patients without cardiovascular events. Conversely, LDL-C, non-HDL-C, apolipoprotein B, remnantlike particle cholesterol, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were similar between the two groups. A Kaplan-Meyer event-free survival curve demonstrated that patients with sdLDL-C≥35 mg/dL (median level) had significantly poorer prognosis compared with those with lower sdLDL-C levels, while patients with LDL-C ≥100 mg/dL had a non-significantly lower survival rate.


These results confirm that sdLDL-C is a very promising biomarker to predict future cardiovascular events in the secondary prevention of stable CAD.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for J-STAGE, Japan Science and Technology Information Aggregator, Electronic
Loading ...
Support Center