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J Atheroscler Thromb. 2014;21(8):755-67. Epub 2014 Apr 8.

Elevated small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol as a predictor for future cardiovascular events in patients with stable coronary artery disease.

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1
The Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Showa University School of Medicine.

Abstract

AIM:

The aim of the present study was to investigate how small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sdLDL-C) compared with LDL-C affect the long-term prognosis in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD).

METHODS:

sdLDL-C measured by heparin magnesium precipitation and LDL particle size measured by non-denatured gradient-gel electrophoresis were compared in 190 consecutive CAD patients who underwent coronary arteriography between 2003 and 2004 who did or did not develop cardiovascular events during a seven-year follow-up period. Cardiovascular events were death caused by cardiovascular diseases(CVDs), onset of acute coronary syndrome, need for coronary and peripheral arterial revascularization, hospitalization for heart failure, surgical procedure for any CVDs, and/or hospitalization for stroke.

RESULTS:

First-time cardiovascular events were observed in 72 patients. Those who experienced cardiovascular events were older and had higher prevalence rates of hypertension and diabetes; significantly higher Gensini coronary atherosclerotic scores; significantly higher levels of sdLDL-C, sdLDL-C/LDL-C, and LDL-C/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratios; and greater glycated hemoglobin(Hb)A1c and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels. They also had significantly smaller LDL particle sizes, HDL-C, apolipoprotein A-1, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) compared with patients without cardiovascular events. Conversely, LDL-C, non-HDL-C, apolipoprotein B, remnantlike particle cholesterol, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were similar between the two groups. A Kaplan-Meyer event-free survival curve demonstrated that patients with sdLDL-C≥35 mg/dL (median level) had significantly poorer prognosis compared with those with lower sdLDL-C levels, while patients with LDL-C ≥100 mg/dL had a non-significantly lower survival rate.

CONCLUSION:

These results confirm that sdLDL-C is a very promising biomarker to predict future cardiovascular events in the secondary prevention of stable CAD.

PMID:
24717762
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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