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Sci Rep. 2014 Apr 10;4:4629. doi: 10.1038/srep04629.

Three-dimensional sulfur/graphene multifunctional hybrid sponges for lithium-sulfur batteries with large areal mass loading.

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Department of Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001, P. R. China.


In this communication, we introduce the concept of three dimensional (3D) battery electrodes to enhance the capacity per footprint area for lithium-sulfur battery. In such a battery, 3D electrode of sulfur embedded into porous graphene sponges (S-GS) was directly used as the cathode with large areal mass loading of sulfur (12 mg cm(-2)), approximately 6-12 times larger than that of most reports. The graphene sponges (GS) worked as a framework that can provide high electronic conductive network, abilities to absorb the polysulfides intermediate, and meanwhile mechanical support to accommodate the volume changes during charge and discharge. As a result, the S-GS electrode with 80 wt.% sulfur can deliver an extremely high areal specific capacitance of 6.0 mAh cm(-2) of the 11(th) cycle, and maintain 4.2 mAh cm(-2) after 300 charge-discharge cycles at a rate of 0.1C, representing an extremely low decay rate (0.08% per cycle after 300 cycles), which could be the highest areal specific capacity with comparable cycle stability among the rechargeable Li/S batteries reported ever.

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