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Ther Hypothermia Temp Manag. 2011;1(4):199-203. doi: 10.1089/ther.2011.0015.

Therapeutic Hypothermia After Cardiac Arrest is Underutilized in the United States.

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Rush University Medical Center , Department of Neurological Sciences, Chicago, Illinois.


Little is known about the frequency of therapeutic hypothermia use after cardiac arrest in the United States. We, therefore, analyzed the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) to determine the prevalence of hypothermia use after cardiac arrest and patient and hospital factors associated with its use. Using 2007 NIS data, we identified adult patients with cardiac arrest using the ICD-9 diagnosis code, 427.5, while the use of therapeutic hypothermia was based on the ICD-9 procedure code, 99.81. Among 26,519 adult patients with cardiac arrest, only 92 (0.35%) were coded as having received therapeutic hypothermia. In a multivariable logistic regression model, independent factors associated with the use of therapeutic hypothermia included age as a continuous variable ([odds ratios] OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.963-0.989, p<0.001), comorbidity adjusted mortality score (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.04-1.08, p<0.001), admission from the emergency room (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.191-3.949, p=0.011), teaching hospital status (OR 2.68, 95% CI 1.36-5.29, p=0.005), acute myocardial infarction (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.14-3.36, p=0.015), hospital location in the western United States (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.16-3.14, p=0.011), and >97% registered nurse hospital staffing (OR 2.64, 95% CI 1.62-4.30, p<0.001). Therapeutic hypothermia may be utilized in <1% of cardiac arrest patients in U.S. hospitals. We identified important patient and hospital factors associated with therapeutic hypothermia utilization. Efforts to increase generalized utilization of this effective resuscitation strategy are warranted.


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