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Development. 2014 Apr;141(8):1614-26. doi: 10.1242/dev.102376.

The Hippo pathway effectors TAZ and YAP in development, homeostasis and disease.

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Department of Biochemistry, Boston University School of Medicine, 72 East Concord Street, Room K-620, Boston, MA 02118, USA.


Studies over the past 20 years have defined the Hippo signaling pathway as a major regulator of tissue growth and organ size. Diverse roles for the Hippo pathway have emerged, the majority of which in vertebrates are determined by the transcriptional regulators TAZ and YAP (TAZ/YAP). Key processes regulated by TAZ/YAP include the control of cell proliferation, apoptosis, movement and fate. Accurate control of the levels and localization of these factors is thus essential for early developmental events, as well as for tissue homeostasis, repair and regeneration. Recent studies have revealed that TAZ/YAP activity is regulated by mechanical and cytoskeletal cues as well as by various extracellular factors. Here, I provide an overview of these and other regulatory mechanisms and outline important developmental processes controlled by TAZ and YAP.


Hippo pathway; Mechanosensing; Organ patterning; Pre-implantation development; Stem cells

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