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Magn Reson Med. 2015 Jan;73(1):102-16. doi: 10.1002/mrm.25197. Epub 2014 Apr 8.

Recommended implementation of arterial spin-labeled perfusion MRI for clinical applications: A consensus of the ISMRM perfusion study group and the European consortium for ASL in dementia.

Author information

1
Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
2
Departments of Neurology and Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
3
Department of Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, UK.
4
Fraunhofer MEVIS, Bremen, Germany.
5
University Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
6
Mediri GmbH, Heidelberg, Germany.
7
Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
8
FMRI Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.
9
Advanced Imaging Research Center, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA.
10
Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
11
Department of Physical Sciences, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Canada.
12
Centre for Imaging Science, Institute of Population Health, Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.
13
Department of Radiology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Centre Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
14
C. J. Gorter Center for High Field MRI, Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.
15
Department of Neurology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.
16
Departments of Radiology and Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA.
17
Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA.

Abstract

This review provides a summary statement of recommended implementations of arterial spin labeling (ASL) for clinical applications. It is a consensus of the ISMRM Perfusion Study Group and the European ASL in Dementia consortium, both of whom met to reach this consensus in October 2012 in Amsterdam. Although ASL continues to undergo rapid technical development, we believe that current ASL methods are robust and ready to provide useful clinical information, and that a consensus statement on recommended implementations will help the clinical community to adopt a standardized approach. In this review, we describe the major considerations and trade-offs in implementing an ASL protocol and provide specific recommendations for a standard approach. Our conclusion is that as an optimal default implementation, we recommend pseudo-continuous labeling, background suppression, a segmented three-dimensional readout without vascular crushing gradients, and calculation and presentation of both label/control difference images and cerebral blood flow in absolute units using a simplified model.

KEYWORDS:

arterial spin labeling; cerebral blood flow; perfusion

PMID:
24715426
PMCID:
PMC4190138
DOI:
10.1002/mrm.25197
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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